Bayon was one of the Buddhist monastic complexes and served as the State-Temple or Temple-Mountain of the Buddhist king Jayavarman VII, his reign in 1181-1220 which is situated at the center of the walled city of Angkor Thom. Its structure and architecture are relatively complex. It is very famous for its face towers which were originally supposed to be 54 or 49 but now only 34 are still remaining at the site. Most of the temple towers have faces carved on their four sides; some have faces on their two or three sides. The faces of each tower have been diplomatically debated by historians or scholars; some thinks that it symbolizes the faces of Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara but it generally accepted that it is the images of the king which signifies the omnipresence of the king himself. The main structure of the temple has galleries, corner pavilions and gopuras. The temple was built with 3 dimensions and surrounded by concentric galleries with corbelled arch or vaulted roofs on the first and second levels and Naga balustrades but the roof of the 1st gallery has been completely collapsed. The first dimension is 156m x 141m, the second is 80m x70m and the third marked by Naga balustrade is unmeasured. The Bayon by its structure seems to have been used for the Hindu and Buddhist worship; the iconography belongs to both the religions hinted as witness. This temple has two sets of high reliefs carved in its galleries: the 1st set of the first gallery has the subjects mainly from historical events like the battle btw Khmers and Chams and many scenes from the daily life of the people at the time. The 2nd set of the inner seems to have been carved at a later stage and depicts palace scenes, processions and divinities. Bayon, as stated by Chinese envoy who arrived here in 1296 and lived a year, is the temple of a golden tower. As we reach the temple its foundation is run around by Naga balustrade with the garuda sitting on its multi-headed snake; these two animals, in conformity to the Hindu legend, could not cohabit but during the reign of the king Jayavarman he put them together because he wants to syncretize (synthetize or synthesize) the both religions; even he is the Buddhist fervent he tolerates the people who believed in Hinduism. After his Peri-nirvana death king Jayavarman VIII converted the formal religion from Buddhism to Hinduism so this Hindu king decreed his subjects to renovate all the Buddhist temples to Hindu temples. The images of the Buddha along the wall, on the column, in the pediment and in the sandstone ridges capped on the corbelled arch roof have been chiseled off and the statues of the Buddha inside each tower displaced by lingam “phallic symbol” (sacrifice to stone lingam by pouring water or milk on it, it was thought, ensured the fertility of the soil). To reach the top level, the central sanctuary is in the octagonal form which stands on a terrace of 25m in diameter and encircled by 16 shrines plus one in the middle and also topped by 8 small towers with one, two or three faces. The octagonal shape of its central tower symbolically embodied the noble eightfold path of the Buddha: _Right Understanding _ Right Thought _Right Speech _Right Action _Right Livelihood _Right Effort _Right Mindfulness and _Right Concentration.
●The Four Noble Truths Of The Buddha: ‒the noble truth of suffering –the noble truth of the origin of suffering –the noble truth of extinction of suffering and the noble truth of the path that leads to the extinction of suffering.
I/The Noble truth Of Suffering: ‒the group of corporeality or corporealness –the group of feeling –the group of perception –the group of mental formationsធ –the group of consciousness –dependent origination of consciousness –the three characteristics of existence –the Anatta (impermanent) doctrine–the three warnings and the wheel of existence.
II/The Noble Truth Of The Origin Of Suffering: ‒the sensual craving –the craving of eternal existence –the craving of self-annihilation –the origin of craving –dependent origination of all phenomena –present karma-results–future karma-results –inheritance of deeds –karma and karma as volition.
III/The Noble Truth Of The Extinction Of Suffering: ‒the dependent extinction of all phenomena –Nirvana (nibbana) –Arahat or Holy One and immutable or un-changeability.
IV/The Noble Truth Of The Path That Leads To The Extinction Of Suffering:
1/RIGHT UNDERSTNDING: ‒understanding the four truths –understanding merit and demerit –understanding the three characteristics of existence–unprofitable questions –the five fetters –unwise consideration –six views about the self –wise consideration – the ten fetters១០ –the noble ones –mundane and super-mundane right understanding –free from all theories –the three characteristics – views and discussions about ego –past present future life –the two extremes (annihilation and eternal belief and the middle doctrine)
– the rebirth-producing karma and cessation of karma.
2/RIGHT THOUGHT: ‒mundane and super-mundane right thought.
3/RIGHT SPEECH: ‒mundane and super-mundane right speech.
4/RIGHT ACTION: ‒mundane and super-mundane right action.
5/RIGHT LIVELIHOOD: ‒mundane and super-mundane right livelihood.
6/RIGHT EFFORT: ‒the effort to avoid –the effort to overcome –five methods of expelling evil thought –the effort to develop and the effort to maintain.
7/RIGHT MINDFULNES: a/The Four Foundations Of Mindfulness ‒the contemplation of body –watching over in and out-breathing –the four postures –mindful and clear comprehension –contemplation of loathsomeness –four elements –cemetery meditation –assured of ten blessing –six psychical powers and four bases of obtaining magical powers . b/Contemplation Of The Feelings c/Contemplation Of The Mind d/Contemplation Of The Mind-Objects ‒the five hindrances –the five groups of existence –the twelve sense-bases –the seven elements of enlightenment –the four noble truths and Nibbana through Anapanassati .
8/RIGHT CONCENTRATION: ‒absence of the five hindrances –the four absorptions – four methods of attaining absorption and Nibbana .